Hepatocellular carcinoma usually occurs in patients with cirrhosis and is common in areas where infection with hepatitis B and C viruses is prevalent.
Symptoms and Signs
Most commonly, previously stable patients with cirrhosis present with:
- abdominal pain
- weight loss
- right upper quadrant mass
- unexplained deterioration.
- Fever may occur
- Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) measurement
- Imaging (CT, ultrasonography, or MRI)
Overall prognosis for survival is poor, with a 5-year relative survival rate of 18.4%
The treatment depends on the size and the location of the tumor as well as the TNM staging
- Surgical removal
- Ablative – Radiation treatments
- Chemotherapy – Immunotherapy
- Liver Transplantation