Hepatocellular Carcinoma


Hepatocellular carcinoma usually occurs in patients with cirrhosis and is common in areas where infection with hepatitis B and C viruses is prevalent.

Symptoms and Signs

Most commonly, previously stable patients with cirrhosis present with:

  • abdominal pain
  • weight loss
  • right upper quadrant mass
  • unexplained deterioration.
  • Fever may occur



  • Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) measurement
  • Imaging (CT, ultrasonography, or MRI)



Overall prognosis for survival is poor, with a 5-year relative survival rate of 18.4%



The treatment depends on the size and the location of the tumor as well as the TNM staging

  • Surgical removal
  • Ablative – Radiation treatments
  • Chemotherapy – Immunotherapy
  • Liver Transplantation